1. Why viruses prefer water environment? Maybe there are reasons, which can be explained by physics, not biology. How the information cycle is related to the life cycle through the Landauer principle, which connects physics and information?

Bormashenko, E.; Fedorets, A.A.; Dombrovsky, L.A.; Nosonovsky, M. Survival of Virus Particles in Water Droplets: Hydrophobic Forces and Landauer’s Principle. *Entropy* **2021**, 23, 181. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23020181

2. Evaporation of the microdroplets may result in a reduction of their contagiousness. However, the evaporation of small droplets is a complex process involving mass and heat transfer, diffusion, convection and solar radiation absorption. We employ a model of droplet evaporation with the account for the Knudsen layer. This model suggests that evaporation is sensitive to both temperature and the relative humidity (RH) of the ambient air. We conclude that at small and even at moderately high levels of RH, microdroplets evaporate within dozens of seconds with the convective heat flux from the air being the dominant mechanism in every case. The numerical results obtained in the paper are in good qualitative agreement with both the published laboratory experiments and seasonal nature of many viral infections. Sophisticated experimental techniques may be needed for in situ observation of interaction of viruses with organic particles and living cells within microdroplets. The novel controlled droplet cluster technology is suggested as a promising candidate for such experimental methodology.

Dombrovsky, L.A.; Fedorets, A.A.; Levashov, V.Y..; Kryukov, A.P.; Bormashenko, E.; Nosonovsky, M. Modeling Evaporation of Water Droplets as Applied to Survival of Airborne Viruses. *Atmosphere ***2020**, 11, 965. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090965

3. Evaporation model without the Knudsen layer effect and some experimental data on the evaporation of droplets on hydrophobic surfaces.

MS Hasan, K Sobolev, M Nosonovsky. Evaporation of droplets capable of bearing viruses airborne and on hydrophobic surfaces, *Journal of Applied Physics* **2021**, 129 (2), 024703

4. Allometry or the quantitative study of the relationship of body size to living organism physiology is an important area of biophysical scaling research. The West-Brown-Enquist (WBE) model of fractal branching in a vascular network explains the empirical allometric Kleiber law (the ¾ scaling exponent for metabolic rates as a function of animal’s mass). The WBE model raises a number of new questions, such as how to account for capillary phenomena more accurately and what are more realistic dependencies for blood flow velocity on the size of a capillary. We suggest a generalized formulation of the branching model and investigate the ergodicity in the fractal vascular system. In general, the fluid flow in such a system is not ergodic, and ergodicity breaking is attributed to the fractal structure of the network. Consequently, the fractal branching may be viewed as a source of ergodicity breaking in biophysical systems, in addition to such mechanisms as aging and macromolecular crowding. Accounting for non-ergodicity is important for a wide range of biomedical applications where long observations of time series are impractical. The relevance to microfluidics applications is also discussed.

M Nosonovsky, P Roy. Allometric scaling law and ergodicity breaking in the vascular system, *Microfluidics and Nanofluidics* **2020** 24 (7), 1-8

5. Scaling and dimensional analysis is applied to networks that describe various physical systems. Some of these networks possess fractal, scale-free, and small-world properties. The amount of information contained in a network is found by calculating its Shannon entropy. First, we consider networks arising from granular and colloidal systems (small colloidal and droplet clusters) due to pairwise interaction between the particles. Many networks found in colloidal science possess self-organizing properties due to the effect of percolation and/or self-organized criticality. Then, we discuss the allometric laws in branching vascular networks, artificial neural networks, cortical neural networks, as well as immune networks, which serve as a source of inspiration for both surface engineering and information technology. Scaling relationships in complex networks of neurons, which are organized in the neocortex in a hierarchical manner, suggest that the characteristic time constant is independent of brain size when interspecies comparison is conducted. The information content, scaling, dimensional, and topological properties of these networks are discussed.

Nosonovsky, M.; Roy, P. Scaling in Colloidal and Biological Networks. *Entropy* **2020**, 22, 622. https://doi.org/10.3390/e22060622