Open Access Resources

Links to open access monographs and other volumes that are relevant to the study of Cypriot archaeology, especially sculpture. Of special interest are the nineteenth-century antiquarian accounts (Sakellarios, Doell, Cesnola, Colonna-Ceccaldi, Lang, etc), as well as important, learned work from the turn of the century by Myres and Ohnefalsch-Richter. Several more recent volumes are also included in cases where online or open-access is available. Volumes are listed in order of their date of publication (apologies in advance for the forced scroll/browse). In general, access to academic publications has increased exponentially since Styppax was first published in 2003; sites like and Hathi Trust provide access to important older publications, while ResearchGate and allow contemporary researchers to publish their own articles and make them available to a wide audience.

Open Access Journals for Cypriot Archaeology

Chronique des fouilles et découvertes archéologiques à Chypre
Bulletin de correspondance hellénique

Initiated in 1959 by Dr. Vassos Karageorghis, the Chronique des fouilles et découvertes archéologiques à Chypre of the Bulletin de correspondance hellénique remains one of the most significant contributions to archaeological research in Cyprus. Designed to offer a comprehensive, annual report of archaeological activity on the island, the Chronique des fouilles, provides an archive of data essential for research. Full-text and searchable (!) online/pdf versions are now available via Persée, a site sponsored by the French Ministry of State for Higher Education and Research designed to offer digital publication of scientific journals in the field of the humanities. The BCH is among the journals catalogued (as well as Syria, Paléorient, and the Comptes-rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres). A full listing, year by year, from 1959-2005, may be found by following the link above. The BCH contains exacation reports and synthetic studies related to Cypriot archaeology – and the full series (1877 until 2014) is available open access HERE.

Cahiers du Centre d’Études Chypriotes
Full-text and searchable (!) online/pdf. Dedicated to the study of ancient Cyprus, the CCEC is arguably one of the most important journals for the study of Cypriot archaeology, history, language, etc. Published by the Centre d’Études Chypriotes. Open access courtesy of Persée.

Monographs, Synthetic Studies, Excavations (+ Antiquarian studies), Catalogues, and Selected Articles Specializing in Cypriot Sculpture

Ta Kypriaka: ētoi, Pragmateia peri geōgraphias, archaiologias, statistikēs
A. A . Sakellarios (Athens, 1855)
An incredibly learned and far-ranging account of Cyprus, which touches on language, archaeology, local customs, topography etc. Among his many contributions, Sakellarios was the first person to associate the ancient toponym ‘Golgoi’ with the archaeological remains north and east of modern Athienou. Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Other volumes/editions are also available. Courtesy of

Die Sammlung Cesnola
J. Doell  (St. Petersburg, 1873)
In 1873, J. Doell published an inventory of the Cesnola collection of Cypriot antiquities on behalf of the Hermitage Museum which was considering purchasing the collection. The plates from this volume are reproduced here. For the entire searchable volume and downloadable .pdf (courtesy of, go here. The importance of this work cannot be overestimated since it represents a contemporary account of the collection, before many of the controversial restorations that occurred after the collection arrived at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Cyprus: Its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples
L. Palma di Cesnola (New York, 1878)
Full-text (on-line) or (downloadable .pdf) of Cesnola’s principal narrative of late nineteenth century excavations on Cyprus, including the account of his discoveries of limestone sculptures from sanctuaries in the region of Athienou/Golgoi. The bulk of Cesnola’s collection made its way to the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York) forming the nucleus of that museum’s collection when it opened in 1880. Cesnola served as the Met’s first director. See below for links to the Met’s www site on the Cesnola collection, as well as the on-line catalogue of Cesnola artifacts now housed in the Semitic Museum (Harvard). Courtesy of & Google Books.

Narrative of Excavations in a Temple at Dali (Idalium) in Cyprus
R. H. Lang and R. S. Poole (Trans. Royal Society of Literature, UK vol. no. 11, 1878)

Begins on page 30. Primary account of the nineteenth century excavations at Idalion by Robert Hamilton Lang. Includes description of work, as well as discussion of the artifacts recovered by R. S. Poole (see especially, pp. 54-63, where Poole outlines various stylistic influences in Cypriote sculpture). Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Courtesy of

Monuments antiques de Chypre, de Syrie et d’Égypte
G. Colonna-Ceccaldi (Paris, 1882)

An important account of early explorations in Cyprus. Most significantly, Colonna-Ceccaldi, the French consult to Cyprus, provides a contemporary account of the discoveries of L. Palma di Cesnola at the the site of Golgoi (near modern Athienou), which brought to light a large cache of limestone sculptures (now in the Met, NYC). Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Courtesy of

Salaminia (Cyprus): The Histories, Treasures, and Antiquities of Salamis in the Island of Cyprus 2nd ed.
Alexander Palma di Cesnola (London, 1884)

Full-text and searchable (on-line) copy of Alexander Cesnola’s (Luigi’s brother) publication of investigations at Salamis. Downloadable .pdf also available. Courtesy of

History of art in Phoenicia and its dependencies (Vol. 2)
G. Perrot and C. Chipiez (London, 1885)

A classic volume dealing with Cypriot sculpture, offering an important look at nineteenth-century views on the style and overall character of Cypriot art. Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Courtesy of

A Descriptive Atlas of the Cesnola Collection of Cypriot Antiquities in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
L. Palma di Cesnola (1885-1902)
Multi-volume, monumental publication of the Cesnola Collection upon their arrival at the Metropolitan Museum of Art (more here). Most comprehensive, illustrated publication of the collection prior to various dispersals (e.g., 1920s Anderson Gallery sales). Courtesy of Hathi Trust.

Naukratis. Part II. 1885-6
E. A. Gardner and F. Ll. Griffith (London, 1888)

Excavation report on Naukratis, which includes the important discovery of Cypriot-style stone statuettes in the so-called “Temple and Temenos of Aphrodite”. Chapter VI is devoted to the statuettes. Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Courtesy of and Google Books.

Kypros, the Bible and Homer : oriental civilization, art and religion in ancient times
M. Ohnefalsch-Richter (London, 1893)

Chronicle of Ohnefalsch-Richter’s excavations on Cyprus. Includes catalogue of sanctuaries identified by O-R. as well as illustrations of finds. The volume is fundamental for research in Cypriote limestone sculpture, as well as Cypriote religion. Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded. Courtesy of

A Catalogue of the Cyprus Museum with a Chronicle of Excavations Undertaken Since the British Occupation
J. L. Myres and M. Ohnefalsch-Richter (Oxford, 1899)

Represents an important source for the collections of the Cyprus Museum. Chronicle of excavations also includes information on excavated sanctuaries. The catalogue is the result of a complete reorganization of the museum by Myres and Ohnefalsch-Richter. Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Courtesy of

Handbook of the Cesnola collection of antiquities from Cyprus
J. L. Myres (New York, 1914)

Fundamental, early publication of the extensive holdings of Cypriote antiquities in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The bulk of the collection was purchased from Cesnola, including an impressive corpus of limestone sculptures. Includes significant comparative research and is essential for the study of Cypriote sculpture. Searchable, online version. Full .pdf can also be downloaded here. Courtesy of

See also:
Metropolitan Museum of Art. Handbook No. 3. Sculptures of the Cesnola Collection of Cypriote Antiquities (New York, 1880)

An early museum guide to the Cesnola sculptures at the Met, originally displayed in the “East Entrance Hall and North Aisle”. Written by Mr. A. Duncan Savage.

Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities of the British Museum I.2: Cypriote and Etruscan
F. N. Pryce (London, 1931)
Publication of the impressive collection of Cypriot limestone sculpture in the British Museum. Superseded by later studies (esp. Gaber-Saletan and Senff), it is still a valuable resource. Most of the statues came from excavations in/around the Iron age polity of Idalion. excavated by R. H. Lang (see above for his account).

The Swedish Cyprus Expedition: Finds and Results of the Excavations in Cyprus, 1927-1931 (see below for links)
E. Gjerstad, A. Westolm, J. Lindros, and Erik Sjöqvist (Stockholm, 1934-1978)

Multi-volume publication of the results of the Swedish Cyprus Expedition (SCE) between 1927-1931. The publication of the Swedish Cyprus Expedition revolutionized our understanding in each of the phases of Cypriot history from prehistoric through Roman times and may be viewed as the foundation of all later studies in Cypriot archaeology, even if necessary and expected revisions have inevitably been introduced. The SCE brought a sophisticated, scientifically-based archaeological approach to the island that paid dividends in creating relative, stratigraphic sequences at many sites.  The first three volumes served as comprehensive field reports; following these reports, a fourth volume was published in six parts between 1948 and 1972 which served as an integrated and synthesized discussion of the mass of information collected in the previous years of excavations. Unfortunately, the complete SCE is not found online and complete hard-copy editions are rare, even for major research libraries.

The following vols area available online:
SCE Volume 1 (Text only, Plates missing)
SCE Volume 2 (Text only, Plates missing)        
SCE Volume 3 (Text only, Plates missing)                
SCE Volume 4.2: The Cypro-Geometric, Cypro-Archaic, and Cypro-Classical Periods (Stockholm, 1948)

Ancient Cyprus: Its Art And Archaeology
S. Casson (1937)
Dated survey of Cypriot archaeology from Prehistory through the Iron age, with special interest paid to Cypriot sculpture. Casson was especially interested in sussing out what he saw as a particularly “Cypriot” style (especially in comparison to Greek art) and the impact of foreign models.

American Expedition to Idalon, Cyprus: first preliminary report, seasons 1971-1972
L. Stager, A. Walker, G. Ernest (Cambridge, MA-ASOR, 1974)

Initial excavation report of the American expedition under Stager and Walker. Later publication Courtesy of (must use/open free account to access).

The Cults of the Ancient Greek Cypriots
C. G. Bennett (UPenn diss, 1980)
Study of Cypriot religion from the perspective of perceived Greek artistic and religious influence on the island. Discussions/interpretations are somewhat dated and, at times, overly deterministic, but Bennett managed to pull together an impressive data set of images and inscriptions that is still quite useful today.

The Limestone Sculpture from Kition and The Limestone Sculpture of the Vouni Region (Bulletin, Medelhavsmuseet. Vols 15 (1980), 41-9 and 16 (1981) 39-46.
Pamela Gaber (Saletan)
Two seminal articles by Pamela Gaber, which applied a regional focus to Cypriot sculpture studies.Gaber rightly criticized the prevailing assumption that a relative chronology based on style would be consistent throughout the island. By examining the sculpture uncovered by the Swedish Cyprus Expedition in the Vouni region (sites of Vouni and Mersinaki), for example, Gaber isolated several traits that seemed distinct to the area, such as triangular faces with bowed mouths and a vertical emphasis (Gaber-Saletan 1981: 45). Likewise, Gaber’s work on the sculpture of Kition isolated stylistic features that appeared distinct to that site and showed how the study of regional schools might be used to elucidate larger historical and social questions.

Amathonte II. Testimonia 2 : Les sculptures découvertes avant 1975
A. Hermary (Paris, 1981)

Publication of limestone sculptures discovered at Amathous, with a contribution by Veronica Tatton-Brown on the Amathous Sarcophagus. Courtesy of École Française d’Athènes.

Ancient Cyprus
A. C. Brown and H. Catling (Oxford, 1986)

Now out-of-print, the text of this important handbook to the Cypriot collections of the Ashmolean is available courtesy of Includes a useful survey of Cypriot material culture.

Footprints in Cyprus: An Illustrated History. Rev. ed.
D. Hunt et al. (London, 1990)
A woefully outdated, but to-date not replicated, survey of ancient-modern Cyprus written by a collection of scholars with expertise in each area. Despite its shortcomings and traditional approach (especially for the archaeological chapters), it still remains a useful introduction to the diversity and complexity of the island’s material culture and history.

Archaische Kalksteinplastik Zypern
D. G. Mylonas (Mannheim, 1998)
Full-text (.pdf) of Dimitris G. Mylonas’s Mannheim dissertation on the subject of Cypriot limestone sculpture (ISBN: 3-932178-09-2).

Amathonte V. Les figurines en terre cuite archaïques et classiques. Les sculptures en pierre
A. Hermary (Athens, 2000)

Publication of limestone sculptures excavated after 1975, serves as supplemental to Vol 2.2 (but also includes terracotta sculptures. Courtesy of École Française d’Athènes.
Note: All excavation volumes from the French at Amathous are available via Persée.

Ancient Art from Cyprus: The Cesnola Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art
V. Karageorghis, in collaboration with J. R. Mertens and M. Rose (New York, 2000)
From the blurb: This splendid catalogue is published on the occasion of the opening of the Museum’s four permanent galleries for ancient art from Cyprus. It is also the first scholarly publication since 1914 devoted to the Cesnola Collection (which totals approximately six thousand objects). The volume features some five hundred pieces from the collection, illustrated in superb new color photography. Dating from about 2500 B.C. to about A.D. 300, these works rank among the finest examples of Cypriot art from the prehistoric, Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, and Roman periods. Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Prolegomena to the Study of Cypriote Sculpture (Cahiers du Centre d’Etudes Chypriotes. Volume 31, 2001, 129-181).
Derek B. Counts
General survey (up to 2000) of Cypriot limestone sculpture with a focus on history of scholarship, chronology and typology, as well as interpretations.

Ancient Cypriote art in the Musée d’art et d’histoire, Geneva
V. Karageorghis and J. Chamay (Nicosia, 2004)
Catalogue of the Museum’s holdings in Cypriot art, which includes an important collection of limestone sculptures. Although access to the entire book is limited, the entries for stone sculpture are available here.

Classical Sculpture: Catalogue of the Cypriot, Greek, and Roman Stone Sculpture in the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
I. B. Romano (Philadelphia, 2006)

Catalogue of the Museum’s holdings in Classical sculpture, which includes an important collection of Cypriot limestone sculptures. Although access to the entire book is limited, the entries for Cypriot sculpture are available here.

Cyprus: Crossroads of Civilizations
S. Hadjisavvas, Ed. (Nicosia, 2010)
Illustrated catalogue to accompany the exhibition. On the exhibition: “‘Cyprus: Crossroads of Civilizations’ celebrates Cyprus’ 11,000-year history and showcases some of the latest discoveries from the early era of Cypriot archaeology,” said Sophocles Hadjisavvas, guest curator of the exhibition. “This unique exhibit shows the rich heritage and cultural contribution of Cyprus to the world. We look forward to having Smithsonian visitors explore Cyprus and the treasures this island has to offer.” The exhibition will feature more than 200 artifacts—covering nearly 11,000 years of history—that range from items from the earliest villages to masterpieces of medieval religious art and give an overview of the island’s unique culture. Courtesy of (must open/use free account to access).

Ancient Cyprus: Cultures in Dialogue
D. Pilides and N. Papadimitriou (2012)
The exhibition ‘Ancient Cyprus: Culture in Dialogue’ was presented in the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels from October 2012 until February 2013. It presented an overview of the culture of Cyprus from the earliest human settlement on the island to the end of Antiquity. The exhibition featured ca. 300 ancient objects from 13 museums in Cyprus, Belgium and the UK.

The Cesnola Collection of Cypriot Art:  Stone Sculpture. 1st Rev ed.
A. Hermary and J. R. Mertens (New York, 2015)
Definitive, modern publication of the 635 stone objects within the Met’s Cesnola Collection of Cypriot Art. From my review (here): Hermary and Mertens have produced the new standard handbook for The Met’s limestone sculpture, and, more generally, the catalog will hold an important place in the developing history of Cypriot sculpture studies. Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

The Cesnola Collection of Cypriot Art:  Terracottas. 1st Rev ed.
V. Karageorghis, G. S. Merker, and J. R. Mertens (New York, 2018)
From the blurb: This catalogue, which focuses on Cypriot terracottas, was originally published in 2004 as a CD-ROM, and is now available in a more accessible format. It contains nearly 500 works dating from between about 2000 B.C. and the 2nd century A.D. from one of the most expansive collections of Cypriot art in the world. Illustrations of each object are accompanied by a detailed catalogue entry, including a brief bibliography. In addition, fifteen commentaries make the catalogue a perfect introduction to Cypriot terracottas and the colorful world of ancient life and mythology. Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Visualizing Votive Practice: Exploring Limestone and Terracotta Sculptures through 3D Models
D. B. Counts, E. W. Averett, K. J. Garstki (Grand Forks, ND 2020)
An innovative, open-access, digital monograph that explores the limestone and terracotta sculptures excavated from a rural sanctuary at the site of Athienou-Malloura (Cyprus) by the Athienou Archaeological Project. Chapters on the archaeology of the site, the historiography of Cypriot sculpture, and perspectives on archaeological visualization provide context for the catalogue of 50 representative examples of votive sculpture from the sanctuary. The catalogue not only includes formal and contextual information for each object, but also embeds 3D models directly onto the page. Readers can not only view, but also manipulate, measure, zoom, and rotate each model. Additionally, links at the bottom of each entry unleash high-resolution models with accompanying metadata on the Open Context archaeological data publishing platform and on via the Sketchfab 3D viewing platform as well. This innovative monograph is aimed at a variety of audiences, from Mediterranean archaeologists and students  to specialists interested in 3D visualization techniques.

Visualizing Votive Practice Digital Archive on Open Context
This collaborative digital project serves as the primary, stable repository for a selection of high-resolution 3D models of votive sculpture excavated by Davidson College’s Athienou Archaeological Project (AAP) at the rural sanctuary at Athienou-Malloura in Cyprus. This publication of 3D models of limestone and terracotta statuary comprises photorealistic 3D models (produced by structured light scanning), their associated metadata, as well as formal and contextual data and complements the simultaneous publication of the open-access, digital monograph, Visualizing Votive Practice: Exploring Limestone and Terracotta Sculpture from Athienou-Malloura through 3D Models (The Digital Press at University of North Dakota). The core of this project are the 3D data derived from structured light scanning a selection of statuary (limestone and terracotta) from Athienou-Malloura. The data contain 50 digital 3D models of these artifacts that include human, animal, and divine representations. Each artifact contains metadata that includes standard dimensions and archaeological provenience, as well as commentary on their broader context in Cypriot sculpture. The 3D models are visualized using 3DHop, are available for download in .obj format, and contain associated paradata. Use the below Sculptural Types as one way to guide your use of these data.

Kyprios Character
Scientific articles written especially for Kyprios Character by external collaborators pertaining to the history, archaeology and numismatics of ancient Cyprus. Texts, available in Greek and in English, are accompanied by their references, illustrations, a bibliography and a digital location map. Specific topics linked below.

  1. Numismatics
  2. Archaeology
  3. Epigraphy
  4. Kingdoms- Kings
  5. Cyprus and the Others
  6. Cult and Religion
  7. Economy and Trade
  8. Collections of Cypriot Antiquities
  9. Research Projects