General Studies and Chronology

2021 Update: New sources have been added to the bibliography ad hoc, but a more proper update is ‘on the list’!

This is perhaps the most loosely defined section in the bibliography. I have gathered here general reference works that are relevant to the study of Cypriot sculpture. This includes discussions of absolute and relative chronology, as well as stylistic analyses. As is often the case, some specialized studies on a particular theme or object seem relevant to the bigger picture and have been included. You will also find general references to bronze sculpture in Cyprus. References are found within the context of larger discussions of Greek and/or Near Eastern sculpture or in more specific discussions on the art of Cyprus.

Albizzati 1928.  C. Albizzati, “Una Scoltura Ionica da Cipro,” RendPontAcc 5, 33-9.

Åström 1997.  P. Åström, “Cypriote Art through the Millennia,” in Memories and Contemporary Roads of Cypriote Plastic Arts (Nicosia, 1997), 49-63.

Averett and Counts 2020. E. W. Averett and D. B. Counts, “Cypriot Limestone and Terracotta Sculpture: An Excursus.” In D. B. Counts, E. W. Averett, K. Garstki, and M. K. Toumaou, Visualizing Votive Practice: Exploring Limestone and Terracotta Sculpture from Athienou-Malloura through 3D Models. (Grand Forks: Digital Press at the University of North Dakota, 2020), 35-43.

Birmingham 1963.  J. Birmingham, “The Chronology of Some Early and Middle Iron Age Cypriot Sites,” AJA 67, 15-42.

Boardman 1995.  J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture. The Late Classical Period (London), 214.

Bocci 1959.  P. Bocci, “Cipro,” Encyclopedia dell”Arte Antica. Classica e Orientale (Rome).

Borda 1946-1947.  M. Borda,  “« Kýprios Charaktér » Aspetti della Scultura Arcaica Cipriota,” RendPontAcc 22, 87-154.

Brehme 2001. S. Brehme, et al. Ancient Cypriote Art in Berlin. Antikensammlung, Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte, Münzkabinett (Nicosia), see especially ‘Limestone Sculpture’ by M. Brönner, 131-60.

Brönner 1990. M. Brönner, “Untersuchungen zur zyprischen Kalkensteinplastik von den Anfängen bis zu Beginn des 4. Jh v.u. Z. Teil 1: Zur Stilentwicklung anhand ausgewählter Beispiele. Teil 2: Zyprische Plastik in Berlin,” (unpublished dissertation), Berlin.

Brown and Catling 1975.  A. C. Brown and H. C. Catling, Ancient Cyprus (Oxford).

Budde and Nicholls 1964.  L. Budde and R. Nicholls, A Catalogue of the Greek and Roman Sculpture in the Fitzwilliam Museum Cambridge (Cambridge).

Buitron-Oliver 1990.  D. Buitron-Oliver, “Cesnola’s Legacy:  An Example of the Greek Influence on Archaic Cypriot Sculpture,” North Carolina Museum of Art Bulletin 14, 4-10.

Casson 1937.  S. Casson, Ancient Cyprus (London).

Caubet and Yon 1994.  A. Caubet and M. Yon, “Ateliers de sculpture de Kition: VIe-IVes. av. J.-C.” in R. Laffineur and F. Vandenabeele, eds. Cypriote Stone Sculpture (Brussels-Liege, 1994), 97-105.

Childs 2001. W. Childs, “Le role de chypre dans la naissance de la plastique monumentale en Grece,'” Cahier du Centre d’Études Chypriotes 31, 115-28..

Christou 1998.  D. Christou, “Ancient Cypriote Sculpture: Neolithic-Roman Period (7000 BC – 330 AD),” in Memories and Contemporary Roads of Cypriote Plastic Arts (Thessaloniki, 1998), 33-48.

Colonna-Ceccaldi 1882.  G. Colonna-Ceccaldi, Monuments antiques de Chypre, de Syrie et d”Egypt (Paris).

Connelly 1988.  J. B. Connelly, Votive Sculpture of Hellenistic Cyprus (New York).

Counts 1998.  D. Counts, “Contributions to the Study of Cypriote Sculpture: Limestone Votives from Athienou-Malloura, (Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown University).

Counts 2001. D. Counts, “Prolegomena to the Study of Cypriote Sculpture,” Cahier du Centre d’Études Chypriotes 31, 129-181.

Counts forthcoming. D. Counts, “Local Style and Regional Trends in Cypriot Limestone Sculpture: The Athienou School,” in M. K. Toumazou, P. N. Kardulias, and D. B. Counts, eds. Crossroads and Boundaries: The Archaeology of Past and Present in the Malloura Valley , Cyprus.

Deonna 1909. W. Deonna, Les Apollons Archaïques.” (Geneva).

De Salvia 1993.  F. de Salvia, “Cipro, Grecia e l’ ‘Egittizzante Cipriota,'” StEgAntPun 12, 65-75.

Erath-Koiner 2002. G. Erath-Koiner, “On the Way to Hellenism. Late Classical and Early Hellenistic Portraits from Cyprus,” in: From Euagoras I. to the Ptolemies. Proceedings of the International Conference (Nicosia 2002), forthcoming.

Erath-Koiner 2003a. G. Erath-Koiner, “Hellenistische Porträts aus Zypern,” in: Akten des 9. Österr. Archäologentages, (Wien), 29-33.

Erath-Koiner 2003b. G. Erath-Koiner, “Weibliche Schönheit und männlicher Siegerstolz. Berenike II. und ein Athletenbildnis aus dem hellenistischen Zypern,” in: V. Karageorghis and S. Rogge (eds.) Junge zyprische Archäologie (Berlin), 105-16.

Flourentzos 2000.  P. Flourentzos, A Group of Sculptures from Idalion,’ in P. Åström and D. Sürenhagen, eds., Periplus: Festschrift für Hans-Günter Buchholz zu seinem achtzigsten Geburtstag am 24. Dezember 1999 (Jonsered, 2000), 59-62.

Fourrier 2001. S. Fourrier, “Naucratis, Chypre, et la Grèce de l’Est: le commerce des sculptures ‘chypro-ioniennes,’ in Höckmann and Kreikenbom 2001, 39-54.

Fourrier 2007. S. Fourrier, La coroplastie chypriote archaïque (Lyon).

Gaber 1992.  P. Gaber, “Regional Styles and the Chronology of Sculpture,” in P. Åström, ed., Acta Cypria (Jonsered, 1992), 224-7.

Gaber-Saletan 1986.  P. Gaber-Saletan, Regional Styles in Cypriote Sculpture: The Sculpture from Idalion (New York).

Gjerstad 1933.  E. Gjerstad, “Cyprisk och Etruskisk Skulptur,” Konsthistorisk Tidskrift 2 (1933), 51-64.

Gjerstad 1980. E. Gjerstad, Ages and Days in Cyprus (Göteborg).

Gubel 1987. E. Gubel, “«Syro-Cypriote» Cubical Stamps: The Phoenician Connection,” in E. Lipinski, ed. Phoenicia and the East Mediterranean in the First Millennium BC (Leuven), 195ff  (see especially p. 207-8 for bearded ‘Neo-Cypriote’ head on a seal).

Hadjioannou 1985.  K. Hadjioannou, “On the Interpretation of the KUPRIOS CARAKTHR of Aeschylus,” in T. Papadopolou and S. Chatzestylees, eds., Praktika tou deufterou Deithnous Kypriologikou Synedriou (Nicosia, 1985), 509-13.

Hadjistyllis 1985.  S. A. Hadjistyllis, “‘KUPRIOS CARAKTHR’ (A.Supp.282): A Discussion of a New Interpretation,” in T. Papadopolou  and S. Chatzestylees, eds., Praktika tou deufterou Deithnous Kypriologikou Synedriou (Nicosia, 1985), 515-20.

Hermary 1983. A. Hermary, “Deux tètes en marbre trouvées à Amathonte,” BCH 107, 289-99.

Hermary 1989. A. Hermary, Les Antiquités de Chypre: Sculptures (Paris).

Hermary 1990.  A. Hermary, “Historie des études sur la sculpture chypriote,” Cahier du Centre d’Études Chypriotes 14, 7-28.

Hermary 1991a.  A. Hermary, “Les Débuts de la grande plastique chypriote en terre cuite,” in R. Laffineur and F. Vandenabeele, eds. Cypriote  Terracottas (Brussels-Liege), 139-47.

Hermary 1991b.  A. Hermary, “Sculptures `chypro-ioniennes” du Musée de L”Ermitage à Leningrad,” RDAC, 173-7.

Hermary 2001a. A. Hermary, “Les statuettes en bronze a chypre a l’epoque des royaumes,” in Archaeologia Cypria 4, 145-64.

Hermary 2001b. A. Hermary, “Naucratis et la sculpture égyptisante à Chypre,’ in Höckmann and Kreikenbom 2001, 27-38.

Hermary 2003. A. Hermary, “The Hellenism of Cypriote Limestone Sculpture”, in S. Hadjisavvas (ed.), From Ishtar to Aphrodite: 3200 Years of Cypriot Hellenism. Treasures from the Museums of Cyprus (New York), 112-4.

Hermary 2004. A. Hermary, “Monuments funeraires et votifs à Chypre: Les steles et les reliefs en pierre,” in R. Bol and D. Kreikenbom (eds.), Sepulkral- und Votivdenkmäler östlicher Mittelmeergebiete (7. Jh. v. Chr. – 1. Jh. n. Chr.): Kultur begegnungen im Spannungsfeld von Akzeptanz und Resistenz (Mainz), 73-83.

Hill 1940.  G. Hill, A History of Cyprus (Cambridge), 216-25.

Höckmann and Kreikenbom 2001. U. Höckmann and D. Kreikenbom, Naukratis: Die Beziehungen zu Ostgriechenland, Ägypten und Zypern in archaischer Zeit (Paderborn).

Höckmann 2007. U. Höckmann, Zyprisch-griechische Kleinplastik: Kouroi, andere Figuren und plastisch verzierte Gefässe ( Worms ).

Hunt 1990.  D. Hunt, ed., Footprints in Cyprus, rev. ed. (London), passim.

Hurschmann 2003. R. Hurschmann, “Archaisch-kyprische Kouroi mit Hosen,” CCEC 33, 168-210.

Karageorghis 1994.  V. Karageorghis,  “The Development of Cypriote Stone Sculpture,” in R. Laffineur and F. Vandenabeele, eds. Cypriote Stone Sculpture (Brussels-Liege, 1994), 9-13.

Karageorghis 2000.  V. Karageorghis, et al., Ancient Art from Cyprus: The Cesnola Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York).

Karageorghis 2001.  V. Karageorghis, et al., Ancient Cypriote Art in Copenhagen (Nicosia).

Karageorghis 2002. V. Karageorghis, Early Cyprus: Crossroads of the Mediterranean (Los Angeles). Lavishly illustrated introduction to Late Bronze age and early Iron age Cyprus.

Kaulen 1967.  G. Kaulen, Daidalika (Munich), 55-9 and 174-83.

Keesling 2010. C. M. Keesling, “Finding the gods: Greek and Cypriot votive korai revisited,” in J. Mylonopoulos, ed., Divine Images and Human Imaginations in Ancient Greece and Rome . (Leiden), 87-103.

Laffineur and Vandenabeele 1991.  R. Laffineur and F. Vandenabeele, eds. Cypriote Terracottas (Brussels-Liege).

Laffineur and Vandenabeele 1994.  R. Laffineur and F. Vandenabeele, eds. Cypriote Stone Sculpture (Brussels-Liege).

Lang 1878.  R. H. Lang, “Narrative of Excavations in a Temple at Dali (Idalium) in Cyprus,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, 2nd Series, 11, 30-54.

Lawrence 1926.  A. W. Lawrence, “The Primitive Sculpture of Cyprus,” JHS 46, 163-70.

Lewe 1975.  B. Lewe, Studien zur Archaischen Kyprischen Plastik (Dortmund).

Markoe 1987.  G. Markoe, “A Bearded Head with Conical Cap from Lefkonico: An Examination of a Cypro-Archaic Votary,” RDAC, 119-25.

Markoe 1988.  G. Markoe, “An Egyptianizing Votive Statuette from Kourion,” RDAC, 17-8.

Markoe 1990.  G. Markoe, “Egyptianizing Male Votive Statuary from Cyprus: A Reexamination,” Levant 22, 111-22.

Morris 1992.  S. Morris, Daidalos and the Origins of Greek Art (Princeton), 129.

  1. Morris 1985. D. Morris, The Art of Ancient Cyprus (Oxford).

Mylonas 1999. D. Mylonas, Archaische Kalkensteinplastik Zyperns (Diss. Mannheim).

Mylonas 2003. D. Mylonas, “Ikonographie und Typologie der kyprischen archaischen Kalkensteinplastik,” in V. Karageorghis and S. Rogge (eds.) Junge zyprische Archäologie (Münster).

Myres 1914.  J. L. Myres, Handbook of the Cesnola Collection of Antiquities from Cyprus, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York  (New York).

Myres 1945.  J. L. Myres, “The Dates and Origins of Cypriote Sculpture,” BSA 41, 100-104.

Nicolaou 1976. K. Nicolaou, The Historical Topography of Kition (Göteborg), 217-35.

Nick 2006. G. Nick, Zypro-ionische Kleinplastik aus Kalkstein und Alabaster (Möhnesee)

Müller 1929. V. Müller, Frühe Plastik in Griechenland und Vorderasien (Augsburg), 148-66 (specifically on chronology with focus on terracottas, however discussions are relevant.

Ohnefalsch-Richter 1893.  M. Ohnefalsch-Richter Kypros, the Bible and Homer (London).

Ohnefalsch-Richter 1915.  M. Ohnefalsch-Richter, “Kyprische Bildwerke,” AM 40, 53-70 and plates.

Perrot and Chipiez 1885.  G. Perrot and C. Chipiez, Historie de l”art dans l”antiquité III: Phénicie-Cypre (Paris).

Pryce 1928.  F. N. Pryce, Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities of the British Museum I.1 (London).

Price 1931.  F. N. Pryce, Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities of the British Museum I.2 (London).

Raptou 1999.  E. Raptou, Athènes et Chypre à l”époque perse (VIe-IVe s. av. J.-C.) (Lyon).

Reyes 1992. A. Reyes, “The Anthropomorphic Bronze Statuettes of Archaic Idalion, Cyprus,” BSA 87, 243-57.

Reyes 1994.  A. T. Reyes,  Archaic Cyprus: A Study of the Textual and Archaeological Evidence (Oxford), 35-7.

Richter 1968.  G. M. A. Richter, Korai (London),  nos. 154-6 and 190-1.

Richter 1970.  G. M. A. Richter, Kouroi3 (New York), nos. 179-80.

Ridgway 1970.  B. Ridgway. The Severe Style in Greek Sculpture (Princeton).

Ridgway 1977.  B. S. Ridgway, The Archaic Style in Greek Sculpture (Princeton).

Ridgway 1993.  B. S. Ridgway, The Archaic Style in Greek Sculpture2 (Chicago).

Rolley 1994.  C. Rolley, La Sculpture Grecque (Paris), 404-5.

SCE.  E. Gjerstad, et al. Swedish Cyprus Expedition (Stockholm, 1934-1972).

Schmidt 1968.  G. Schmidt, Samos VII: Kyprische Bildwerke aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn).

Senff 1989. R. Senff, “Roman Sculpture in Cyprus,” in V. Tatton-Brown, ed. Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean in the Iron Age (London).

Senff 1993.  R. Senff, Das Apollonheiligtum von Idalion: Architektur und Statuenausstattung eines Zyprischen Heiligtums, SIMA  94 (Jonserd).

Senff 2005. R. Senff, “Dress, Habit, and Status Symbols of Cypriote Statuary from Archaic to Roman Times,” in V. Karagageorghis, H. Matthäus, and S. Rogge (eds.), Cyprus : Religion and Society from the Late Bronze Age to the End of the Archaic Period(Möhnese).

Sjöqvist 1961.  E. Sjöqvist, “Cypriote Art, Ancient,” Encyclopedia of World Art (New York), 170-84.

Solomidou-Ieronymidou 2001. M. Solomidou-Ieronymidou, “The Discovery of Six Unique Cypro-Archaic Statues at Tamassos,” RDAC, 165-86.

Sørensen 1978.  L. W Sørensen, “Early Archaic Limestone Statuettes in Cypriote Style: A Review of their Chronology and Place of Manufacture,” RDAC, 111-21.

Spiteris 1970.  T. Spiteris, The Art of Cyprus (London).

Stylianou 2003. A. Stylianou, “Neues zur Chronologie der frühen kyprischen Plastik,” in V. Karageorghis and S. Rogge (eds.) Junge zyprische Archäologie (Berlin), 29-49.

Tatton-Brown 1984.  V. Tatton-Brown, “Sculptors at Golgoi,” RDAC, 169-73.

Tatton-Brown 1979. V. Tatton-Brown, “A Terracotta ‘Geryon’ in the British Museum .” RDAC, 281-7. Especially interesting for discussion of armor in Cypriote sculpture.

Tatton-Brown 1985.  V. Tatton-Brown, “Archaeology in Cyprus, 1960-1985: Classical to Roman Periods,” in V. Karageorghis, ed., Archaeology in Cyprus 1960-1985 (Nicosia), 60-3.

Tatton-Brown 1997a.  V. Tatton-Brown, Ancient Cyprus (London), 48-55.

Tatton-Brown 1997b.  V. Tatton-Brown, “Cypriote Representations in Antiquity with Reference to Examples of the Present Day, “in Memories and Contemporary Roads of Cypriote Plastic Arts (Nicosia, 1997), 65-80.

Tatton-Brown 2000. V. Tatton-Brown, “Further Thoughts on Cypriot Sculpture,” in G. Ioannidis and S. Hadjistyllis, ed. Praktika tou Tritou (Nicosia), 667-92.

Ulbrich 2008. A. Ulbrich, Kypris : Heiligtuemer und Kulte weiblicher Gottheiten auf Zypern in der kyproarchaischen und kyproklassischen Epoche (Koenigszeit) (Ugarit-Verlag).

Vermeule 1974.  C. C. Vermeule, “Cypriote Sculpture, the Late Archaic and Early Classical Periods: Towards a More Precise Understanding,”  AJA 78, 287-90.

Vermeule 1976.  C. C. Vermeule, Greek and Roman Cyprus: Art from Classical through Late Roman Times (Boston).

Weill 1973.  N. Weill, “Une tête de kouros archaïque à Salamine de Chypre,” in in Salamine de Chypre IV.  Anthologie Salaminienne (Paris), 57-79.

Yon 1973.  M. Yon, “Lions archaïques,” in Salamine de Chypre IV.  Anthologie Salaminienne (Paris), 19-47.

Yon 1974.  M. Yon, Salamine de Chypre V: Un dépot de sculptures archaïques (Paris).