Biomedical Optics studies the effects photons have on tissue, as well as the effect tissue has on photons. Under certain circumstances, photons can affect tissue in many ways. Some of these effects may be desirable and lead to cures for diseases previously thought incurable. The different behavior of the photons in tissue is what allows us to detect differences in the tissue itself. Interactions of photons with tissue can be categorized to Absorption, Reflection, Scattering and Fluorescence as shown in the figure below.
Noninvasive Optical Tissue Diagnostics Techniques
One of the advantages optical diagnostics has over other techniques is that it can be performed noninvasively. However, this field has much room to grow as more advanced techniques are discovered. There is great potential here for doctors to be able to diagnose patients with any disease without requiring surgery.