Diana Illencik, “Citizenship as a Basket of Rights in the Era of Globalization”
Mentor: Aneesh Aneesh, Sociology
Citizenship has long been referred to in the context of a nation-state membership. Various alternative approaches challenged the view on citizenship and introduced new frameworks, such as cosmopolitan, postnational, and transnational citizenship. These frameworks have in common their shift from referring to citizenship in terms of nationality to considering citizenship as based on human rights in contemporary world society. With the rise of dual and multiple citizenship formats, there is a gradual move away from exclusive nation-state membership. The loss of national exclusivity of citizenship is further emphasized by the increase in various citizenship-by-investment programs which allow individuals to purchase a second citizenship for a price and therefore extend their rights and ability to travel freely or work in various countries throughout the world. The purpose of this project is to study the growth and extent of dual and multiple citizenship throughout various regimes and governments around the world in order to introduce a new framework — modular citizenship, which refers to citizenship as a dynamically changing basket of rights. The framework of modular citizenship allows for a better understanding of citizenship in the era of globalization.
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