Niyokwizera Anna, “Impact of Health Disparities Factors by Race/Ethnicity on Pregnancy, Birth, & Infant Outcomes”
Mentor: Teresa Johnson, Nursing
In Southeast (SE) Wisconsin, racial disparities in pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes continue to be some of the worst in the US. The chance of an African American infant dying before their first birthday is 3 times that of a Caucasian infant. African American women have 2.5 times the risk of dying after giving birth than Caucasian women. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in risk factors by race and ethnicity for adverse pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes. De-identified data were obtained from PeriData® from a single hospital in a single county in SE Wisconsin from 2013 to 2018, capturing 70% of the births in that county. The sample consisted of 2,415 Black or African American, 5,405 White, and 999 of other race and ethnicities of mother-infant dyads (pair). The study examined the risk factors by race and ethnicity including hypertension, prematurity, fetal death, breast feeding, and admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) for maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Analyses included descriptive statistics. Results revealed significant differences between Black or African American and White mothers and infants, across all variables (p = 0.00). Hypertension was 13.5% vs 12.2%, prematurity was 28.4% vs 23.0%, fetal intrapartum (stillbirth) death was 0.7% vs 0.3%, NICU admission was 14.4% vs 13.1% for Black or African American and White mother-infant dyads respectively. In contrast, fewer African American women reported breast feeding their infants (49.0%) than White women (79.1%). Black or African American women and infants in Southeast Wisconsin have risk factors that impact maternal and infant health outcomes. These data may inform nurses and community partners to develop and implement programs to improve outcome for Black and African American maternal infant dyads.
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