Appendix V. Keyboard shortcuts

1. Independent screen reader

 

1.1. JAWs Keyboard Shortcuts

(https://www.freedomscientific.com/training/jaws/hotkeys/)

JAWs is a paid computer screen reader program for Windows. It helps blind and visually impaired users to read computer screen by text-to-speech output or navigate windows by keyboard. JAWs provides speech and Braille output for the most popular computer applications on Windows PC. It allows users to navigate the Internet, write a document, read an email and create presentations.

General Keystrokes

Description Keystroke
Go Back a Page ALT+LEFT ARROW or BACKSPACE
Go Forward a Page ALT+RIGHT ARROW
Read Address Bar INSERT+A
Next Link TAB
Prior Link SHIFT+TAB
Open Link ENTER
List Frames INSERT+F9
List Links INSERT+F7
List Headings INSERT+F6
Heading at Level 1 through 6
Virtual HTML Features INSERT+F3
JAWS Find Next and Previous F3 and SHIFT+F3
Assign Custom Label CTRL+INSERT+TAB
ARIA Drag-and-Drop WINDOWS Key+CTRL+EQUALS
ARIA Live Region Text Filter WINDOWS Key+CTRL+DASH
Open Flexible Web Wizard INSERT+SPACEBAR followed by X
Temporarily Toggle Smart Navigation INSERT+X

Tabbed Browsing Quick Keys

Description Keystroke
Open a New Tab CTRL+T
Open a New Tab from the Address Bar ALT+ENTER (on address bar)
Switch to the Next Tab CTRL+TAB
Switch to the Previous Tab CTRL+SHIFT+TAB
Switch to a Specific Tab Number CTRL+n, where n is a digit from 1 through 8
Switch to Last Tab CTRL+9
Close Current Tab CTRL+W or CTRL+F4
Close All Tabs ALT+F4
Close Other Tabs CTRL+ALT+F4
Open Links in a New Tab in the Background CTRL+ENTER
Open Links in a New Tab in the Foreground CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER

Navigation Quick Keys

Tip: If you press and hold SHIFT before pressing one of the following Navigation Quick Keys, you can move to the previous instance of that element, for example, press to move to the next radio button, press SHIFT+A to move to the previous radio button.

In addition, if you press and hold CTRL+INSERT while pressing keystrokes with an asterisk (*) next to them, JAWS displays a list of those elements on the page.

Description Keystroke
Next Radio Button A*
Next Button B*
Next Combo Box, List Box, or Tree View C*
Next Different Element D
Next Edit Box E*
Next Form Control F
Next Graphic G*
Next Heading H
Next Item in a List I
Jump to Line J*
Next PlaceMarker K*
Next List L*
Next Frame M
Skip Past Links N
Next Article O*
Next Paragraph P*
Move to Main Region Q
Next Region R*
Next Same Element S
Next Table T*
Next Unvisited Link U
Next Visited Link V
Next Check Box X*
Next Division Z*
Next Tab Control APOSTROPHE*
Next Separator DASH
Next Clickable Element SLASH*
Next Mouse Over Element SEMICOLON*
Next Element SHIFT+PERIOD
Previous Element SHIFT+COMMA

Forms

Description Keystroke
Enter Forms Mode ENTER
Exit Forms Mode NUM PAD PLUS
List Form Fields INSERT+F5
First Form Field INSERT+CTRL+HOME
Next Form Field F
Prior Form Field SHIFT+F
Last Form Field INSERT+CTRL+END
Next Radio Button A
Prior Radio Button SHIFT+A
List Radio Buttons CTRL+INSERT+A
Next Button B
Prior Button SHIFT+B
List Buttons CTRL+INSERT+B
Next Combo Box, List Box, or Tree View C
Prior Combo Box, List Box, or Tree View SHIFT+C
List Combo Boxes, List Boxes, or Tree Views CTRL+INSERT+C
Next Edit Box E
Prior Edit Box SHIFT+E
List Edit Boxes CTRL+INSERT+E
Next Check Box X
Prior Check Box SHIFT+X
List Check Boxes CTRL+INSERT+X

Tables

Description Keystroke
List keystrokes for table navigation INSERT+SPACEBAR, followed by T, and then QUESTION MARK
Next Table T
Prior Table SHIFT+T
Select Table F8
Next Row WINDOWS KEY+ALT+DOWN ARROW
Prior Row WINDOWS KEY+ALT+UP ARROW
Read Row WINDOWS KEY+COMMA or WINDOWS KEY+NUM PAD 5
Next Column WINDOWS KEY+ALT+RIGHT ARROW
Prior Column WINDOWS KEY+ALT+LEFT ARROW
Read Column WINDOWS KEY+PERIOD
Next Cell in Row ALT+CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
Prior Cell in Row ALT+CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Cell Below in Column ALT+CTRL+DOWN ARROW
Cell Above in Column ALT+CTRL+UP ARROW
Jump to Table Cell CTRL+WINDOWS KEY+J
Return to Previous Cell CTRL+WINDOWS KEY+SHIFT+J

PlaceMarkers

Description Keystroke
Set Temporary PlaceMarker (Permanent Marker for Word) CTRL+WINDOWS Key+K
Add, Delete, Edit, or Rename Permanent PlaceMarkers CTRL+SHIFT+K
Move to the Next or Prior PlaceMarker or SHIFT+K
Read Text at PlaceMarkers 1 through 4 Number Row Keys 7 through 0
Move to PlaceMarker 1 through 4 SHIFT+ number row keys 7 through 0
Return to PlaceMarker in Word ALT+WINDOWS Key+K
Select Text from PlaceMarker to Cursor Position INSERT+SPACEBAR followed by M

Frames

Description Keystroke
Next Frame M
Prior Frame SHIFT+M
List Frames INSERT+F9

Elements

Description Keystroke
Next Same Element S
Prior Same Element SHIFT+S
Next Different Element D
Prior Different Element SHIFT+D
Next Element SHIFT+PERIOD
Prior Element SHIFT+COMMA
Select Entire Element F8
Display Entire Element SHIFT+INSERT+F1
Display Detailed Element Information CTRL+SHIFT+INSERT+F1
Activate Mouse Over INSERT+CTRL+ENTER

 

1.2. NVDA Keyboards Shortcuts

(https://www.nvaccess.org/files/nvdaTracAttachments/455/keycommands%20with%20laptop%20keyboard%20layout.html )

NVDA allows blind and visually impaired users to access and interact with the Windows operating system and associated third-party applications. It is free software and provides users to navigate, read, and write in web browsers and applications.

The basics

Topic Task Command
On/Off: Turn NVDA on Control + Alt + N
Turn NVDA off Insert + Q
Reading: Stop Reading Control
Start reading continuously from this point on Insert +  or Numpad +
Read next item
Read next focusable item (e.g., link, button) Tab
Activate: Link Enter
Button Enter or Spacebar
Headings: Go to next heading H
Go to next heading of level [1-6] 1 – 6
List all headings Insert + F7
Landmarks: Go to next landmark/region D
Elements list: Show list of all links, headings, form fields, buttons, and landmarks Insert + F7
Tables: Go to next table T
Navigate table cells Ctrl + Alt +  or  or  or
Lists: Go to next list L
Go to next list item I
Graphics: Go to next graphic G
Links: List all links Insert + F7
Go to next link K
Go to next unvisited link U
Go to next visited link V
Navigate: Toggle between:
Radio buttons,
<select>list items,
Tabs (ARIA widget),
Tree view items (ARIA widget),
Menu items (ARIA widget)
 or  or  or
Go backward: To previous heading, landmark, table, focusable item, etc. Shift + [HDTTab, etc.]

Reading text

Topic Task Command
Line: Say prior line  or Numpad 7
Say next line  or Numpad 9
Say current line Insert +  or Numpad 8
Start of line Shift + Numpad 1
End of line Shift + Numpad 3
Top line Shift + Numpad 7
Bottom line Shift + Numpad 9
Character: Say prior character  or Numpad 1
Say next character  or Numpad 3
Say current character Numpad 2
Say character phonetically Numpad 2 twice quickly
Word: Say prior word Ctrl +  or Numpad 4
Say next word Ctrl +  or Numpad 6
Say current word Numpad 5
Sentence: Say prior sentence Alt +
Say next sentence Alt +
Say current sentence Alt + Numpad 5
Paragraph: Next paragraph Ctrl +  or Q
Spelling: Spell word Numpad 5 twice quickly
Spell word phonetically Numpad 5 thrice quickly
Spell current line Insert +   twice quickly
Spell current line phonetically Insert +   thrice quickly

Tables

Topic Task Command
Table: Go to next (previous) table T (Shift + T)
Cell: Cell to right Ctrl +  Alt +
Cell to left Ctrl +  Alt +
Cell below Ctrl +  Alt +
Cell above Ctrl +  Alt +

Forms

Topic Task Command
List all: List all form elements Insert + F7
Navigate: Next form field F
Next focusable item Tab
Next button B
Checkboxes: Select and deselect Spacebar
Next checkbox X
Combo boxes (<select>): Open combo box Alt +
Browse/select options  or the First letter
Select multiple options Shift +  (or )
Next combo box C
Radio buttons: Toggle selection /
Next radio button R
Focus mode*: Toggle between focus mode and browse mode Insert + Spacebar

* “Focus mode” allows you to enter data into form fields. Browse mode allows you to navigate the page using standard screen reader shortcuts (e.g., to navigate headings, landmarks, and links)

Other commands

Task Command
Search for a word or a phrase NVDA + Ctrl + F
Keyboard help Insert + 1
Next blockquote Q
Next key you hit ignores NVDA and is a normal keystroke Insert + F2
Speak characters typed Insert + 2
Speak words typed Insert + 3
Read entire foreground window (e.g., for dialogs) Insert + B
Announce title of the current foreground window Insert + T

 

2. Screen Readers in operating systems

2.1. VoiceOver Keyboard Shortcuts (MAC)

(https://www.apple.com/voiceover/info/guide/_1131.html)

VoiceOver is a screen reader program built into Apple’s product such as MAC computer. Blind and visually impaired users can access their Apple devices based on speech or a keyboard.

2.2. Windows PC Keyboard Shortcuts

(https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/13810/windows-keyboard-shortcuts-accessibility)

Windows provides some features for supporting blind and visually impaired users such as a keyboard shortcuts for navigating programs and a Narrator for reading aloud the text on the PC screen.

 

3. Screen readers as a browser extension (no shortcut)

Below listed programs are screen readers that can be installed as a browser extension. You can check whether your website or a destination website supports accessibility such as alt-text for images.

3.1. ChromeVox

(https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/chromevox-classic-extensi/kgejglhpjiefppelpmljglcjbhoiplfn?hl=en-GB#:~:text=The%20ChromeVox%20screen%20reader%20is,like%20HTML5%2C%20CSS%20and%20Javascript.&text=ChromeVox%20is%20just%20one%20of%20the%20Google%20Accessibility%20extensions)

It is a screen reader program from Google.

3.2. Read Aloud

(https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/read-aloud-a-text-to-spee/hdhinadidafjejdhmfkjgnolgimiaplp?hl=en)

It is a text to speech browser extension for Chrome and Firefox.

3.3. Funkify-Disability Simulator

(https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/funkify-–-disability-simu/ojcijjdchelkddboickefhnbdpeajdjg?hl=en)

Simulations for experiencing web and interfaces through the eyes of extreme users with difficulty.