HIST 371 Lecture Outline (Fall 2016 – Week 12)

copyright Martha Carlin 2016




Carmina Burana: “Bacche, Bene Venies” (performed the The Drolls; 3:29 min.)

Carmina Burana: Carmina gulatorum et potatorum (1:11:49 min.):

Carmina Burana: “O varium fortune” (performed by Corvus Corvax; 6:29 min.):

Gaudeamus igitur (with full Latin lyrics and English translation, 3:29 min.)

Gaudeamus igitur (sung in Latin by the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute Male Choir, in the Great Hall of the Moscow Conservatory, on 22 May 2007, the choir’s 50th anniversary, 2:05 min.):

Gaudeamus igitur (sung in Latin by a student choir for graduation ceremonies at the Sekolah Tinggi Akuntansi Negara [State College of Accountancy], Indonesia, 2010; 2:11 min.)

Gaudeamus igitur as the anthem of the International University Sports Federation (sung in Latin, at the Universiade in, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, summer 2013, 7:01 min.; start at 5:38 min.):

Gaudeamus igitur (sung in Latin by the University of Illinois’ Varsity Men’s Glee Club, 1:36 min.):

Gaudeamus igitur (sung in Latin by students of the University of Indonesia, 2011 4:11 min.):


Bartlett, England under the Norman and Angevin Kings, pp. 506-525 (Education and High Learning)

Carlin and Crouch, Lost Letters of Medieval Life, pp. 247-257 (Documents 80-84)

Topics and terms:

The 7 Liberal Arts:

Trivium (grammar, rhetoric, logic)
Quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music)

Many schools: parochial, cathedral, and monastic
Rise of  “the Schools” in 12 C. (esp. at Paris, Bologna, and Salerno), and evolution of corporate universities (including Oxford and Cambridge), with chancellors and statutes, in early 13 C.
Advanced “Schools” and university subjects: theology, law (canon and Roman), and medicine

Reference books included:

Glossa ordinaria (“Ordinary Gloss”: encyclopedia of passages commenting on the Bible, compiled in N. France in early 12 C.)
Peter Lombard’s Sentences (theological textbook, compiled in Paris c. 1150)
Corpus Iuris Civilis (encyclopedia of Roman law, compiled at the order of the emperor Justintinian in Constantinope in the mid 500s)
Gratian’s Decretum (encyclopedia of canon law, compiled c. 1140)
Gregory IX’s Decretals (encyclopedia of papal edicts, compiled 1234)
Translations into Latin of the works of Aristotle and of some of the great scholarly works in Arabic (philosophy and science)

Biblical study focused on analysis of the four “senses” of scripture:

historical/literal (what is the historical meaning or context of this word or passage?)
tropological (what moral lesson can be learned from this word or passage?)
allegorical (symbolic meanings of words or passages as concerning the Church and Christians in the present day)
anagogical (symbolic meanings of words or passages as concerning God and the end of time)


Magistra:    Benedicite, discipuli!

Discipuli:    Benedicite, magistra!

Magistra:   Quando magistra tua entrat cameram studii, omnes discipuli debent stare.  State, discipuli!

Discipuli:    [Omnes stant.]  Bene, magistra.

Magistra:    Bene, discipuli.  Nunc, sedete.  [Discipuli sedent.]  Hodie, studeamus numeros in lingua latina.  Unus, due, tres . . .  Dicete, discipuli.

Discipuli:    Unus, due, tres . . .

Magistra:    Bene.  Nunc, scribeamus numeros. Unus est “i”; quinque est “v”;  decem est “x”;  et cetera.  Quis potest scribere “centum quindecim?


Starting school (15th cent.)

Boys in school (Manessa Codex, c. 1300)

A schoolroom

Hornbook (English, post-medieval)

Figure of “Rhetoric,” holding wax tablets and stylus

Leaf from a wax tablet with Greek text, from Roman Egypt   (Writing Exercise. British Library, Add. MS. 34186(I).

Leaf 1 of a two-leaved wooden tablet filled with wax. The writing master has set out two gnomai to be copied by the pupil, and has ruled four sets of parallel lines as guides. Such ruled guide-lines are often found in writing exercises, including the exercises of calligraphers. 160 x 178 mm. (wax 211 x 128 mm.). Egypt, 2nd cent. AD.) [According to my late colleague Bob Ross, the Greek exercise in this case is two lines of iambic verse by Menander, written out on top by the teacher, and copied twice below by the student.  It begins: “sophou par’ andros . . .” and means: “You must accept the advice of a wise man, do not trust all your friends.”]  The second leaf of the tablet contains a multiplication table.

Metal and bone styli

Quill and reed pen

Writing styli and board for wax writing tablet from medieval Novgorod

The wax tablets of the city of Torun (Poland), c. 1250-1530

Girl holding hornbook or wax tablet and children holding hornbooks or wax tablets  (frescoes in St. Vigil unter Weineck, c. 1385-1390)

Wax tablets (Roman painting)

Ivory writing tablets (c. 1320)

University students at a lecture (Bologna)