HIST 204 Lecture Outline (Spring 2023 – Week 4)

HIST 204

Conquests, Crusades, and Persecutions


Music from medieval Spain:

Song of the Reconquista: Folquet de Marselha, Hueimais no-y conosc razo (De ahora en adelante no conozco razón)
(composed after Alfonso VIII of Castile’s defeat by al-Mansur at Alarcos in 1195; 9:58 min.): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rALJfRSGPGw&feature=related

Cantigas de Santa Maria, X, “Rosa das Rosas” (from 13th cent. Castile, in Galician-Portuguese, 4:46 min.): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XgjZxQLiv7k&feature=related

Jewish music for the Sabbath:

Rabbi Abraham ben Meir ibn Ezra (1092-1167), “Ki eshmera Shabbat” (Hebrew, 3:31 min.)

Música Arábigo-Andaluza
, 13th cent. (3:49 min.)


Music of the Crusades:

Crucem sanctam subiit (Templar antiphon? mid 12th cent., 8:14 min.):

Thibaut, count of Champagne (1201-53), Seigneurs, sachiez qui or ne s’en ira (3:44 min.):

Chevalier mult estez quariz (2:23 min.):

Trailer for French TV series “Thibaud ou les Croisades” (1968; 0:30 min.):


European Conquests:


1002 Death of Al-Mansur and disintegration of of Al-Andalus (Muslim caliphate of Cordova) leads to:

c. 1050-1250 Gradual Reconquista (reconquest) of much of Iberia by Christian armies (Granada, the last Muslim stronghold, falls in 1492)
1085 Toledo conquered by Christian kingdom of Castile; becomes center for Muslim, Jewish, and Christian scholarly exchange
1130s-40s Merger of Christian kingdoms of Aragon and Barcelona; capture of Lisbon by Crusaders of 2nd Crusade, and establishment of independent Christian kingdom of Portugal
1212-1264 Pope Innocent III proclaims a Crusade against Muslims in Spain; S. half of Portugal and Spain (except territory around Granada) and Balearic Islands conquered by Christians
1047-1090s Robert Guiscard (d. 1085, after rescuing Pope Gregory VII from Henry IV in 1084) and his brother Roger, sons of a Norman baron, conquer S. Italy and Sicily, and establish Norman kingdom there, with capital at Palermo, which becomes center of Muslim, Jewish, Greek, and Latin scholarly exchange.
c. 1125-c. 1350 German eastward expansion into Slavic lands


The First Crusade:

1071 Seljuk Turks smash Byzantine army at Manzikert, and conquer Palestine (including Jerusalem) from Fatimid caliphate of Egypt
1095 Pope Urban II receives appeal for help from Byzantine emperor; at church council at Clermont in Nov. 1095 he calls for Christian reconquest of the Holy Land (First Crusade)
1095-6 Peasants’ Crusade (or “Paupers’” or “People’s” Crusade), led by Peter the Hermit and Walter sans Avoirslaughters Jews in the Rhineland.  Many turn back or are killed in the Balkans; one group (led by Walter) reaches Constantinople, but most are killed near Nicaea by the Turks
1096-9 First Crusade, led by Norman and French barons and knights, conquers Syro-Palestine, including Jerusalem, and divides it up into four Crusader States: kingdom of Jerusalem, principality of Antioch, county of Tripoli, and county of Edessa (click here for a plan of Jerusalem, c. 1140s)

Online readings:

Robert the Monk, Historia Hierosolymitana (c. 1120): Pope Urban II’s speech at Clermont, 1095

Map of the First Crusade, 1095-99

Ekkehard of Aurach, Hierosolymita (early 1100s): The first Crusaders

Fulk of Chartres: The Capture of Jerusalem in 1099, and the Latins in the East






1147-8 Fall of county of Edessa to Muslims (1144) leads to 2nd Crusade:

1170s-80s Re-unification of Muslim state in Egypt under Saladin (d. 1193)
1187 Saladin crushes Crusader army at Hattin and re-conquers much of Crusader States, including Jerusalem, leading to:
1189-93 Third Crusade, led by King Richard I (“the Lionheart”) of England, Philip II (“Augustus”) of France, and Emperor Frederick I (“Barbarossa”) of Germany:

1201-4 Fourth Crusade, preached by Pope Innocent III and led by lesser princes (including Baldwin, Count of Flanders):

1209-29 Albigensian Crusade, preached by Pope Innocent III against Cathars (rather successful; also extended French royal authority into S. France; > Inquisition)
1212 Crusade against Muslims in Spain, preached by Pope Innocent III (successful); “Children’s Crusade” (hopeless)
1217-21 Fifth Crusade: in Egypt (failure)
1229 Emperor Frederick II purchases possession of Jerusalem (it falls again to Muslims in 1244)
1248, 1270 Two Crusades (to Egypt and Tunis) led by King Louis IX (St. Louis) of France — both failures. King Louis is captured and held to ransom in the first, and dies of illness in the second.
1291 Fall of last Crusader stronghold (Acre)

Online readings:

Annales Herbipolenses, 1147: A hostile view of the 2nd Crusade, by an anonymous annalist of Würzburg

De expugnatione terrae sanctae per Saladinum: Eyewitness account of the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, 1187

Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta regis Ricardi (Itinerary of the Travels and Deeds of King Richard): Richard the Lionheart makes peace with Saladin, 1192


12th cent. Rediscovery in the West of codification of Roman law (produced in Constantinople under Emperor Justinian in mid 500s) leads to rapid development of civil (secular) and canon (ecclesiastical) law, and election of canon lawyers to high church office, including the papacy.
1215 Pope Innocent III (a canon lawyer) convenes the 4th Lateran Council, the most important church council held in medieval Europe. It passes a series of canons (church laws), one of which (Canon 21) requires that all Christians shall make confession and take Communion at least once a year, at Easter, on pain of excommunication. This provides a legal basis for the Inquisition, which is established in the 1220s to identify and eliminate all heresies and heretics.

Online readings:

The development of the Inquisition:

Decree of the Council of Toulouse (1229)

Gregory IX sends Domincan friars as Inquisitors to France (1233)

Bernard Gui, Inquisitor’s Manual (c. 1307-23):
the heresies of the Waldensians or Poor Men of Lyon
the Cathars or Albigensians

Bernard Gui, Inquisitor’s Manual (c. 1307-23):

inquisitorial technique
(Notice the very sophisticated legal and interrogation skills displayed here by Bishop Gui in this text.)