HIST 204 Lecture Outline (Spring 2015 – Week 4)

Week 4: Tuesday


Music of the Crusades:

Crucem sanctam subiit (Templar antiphon? mid 12th cent., 8:14 min.):

Thibaut, count of Champagne (1201-53), Seigneurs, sachiez qui or ne s’en ira (3:44 min.):

Chevalier mult estez quariz (2:23 min.):

Trailer for French TV series “Thibaud ou les Croisades” (1968; 0:30 min.):

The First Crusade:

1071 Seljuk Turks smash Byzantine army at Manzikert, and conquer Palestine (including Jerusalem) from Fatimid caliphate of Egypt
1095 Pope Urban II receives appeal for help from Byzantine emperor; at church council at Clermont he calls for Christian reconquest of the Holy Land (First Crusade)
1095-6 Peasants’ Crusade (or “Popular Crusade”), led by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless, slaughters Jews in Rhineland, reaches Constantinople, but is destroyed in Asia Minor by Turks
1096-9 First Crusade, led by Norman and French barons and knights, conquers Syro-Palestine, including Jerusalem, and divides it up into four Crusader States: kingdom of Jerusalem, principality of Antioch, county of Tripoli, and county of Edessa

Online readings:

Robert the Monk, Historia Hierosolymitana (c. 1120): Pope Urban II’s speech at Clermont, 1095

Map of the First Crusade, 1095-99

Ekkehard of Aurach, Hierosolymita (early 1100s): The first Crusaders

Fulk of Chartres: The Capture of Jerusalem in 1099, and the Latins in the East




1147-8 Fall of county of Edessa to Muslims (1144) leads to 2nd Crusade:

1170s-80s Re-unification of Muslim state in Egypt under Saladin (d. 1193)
1187 Saladin crushes Crusader army at Hattin and re-conquers much of Crusader States, including Jerusalem, leading to:
1189-93 Third Crusade, led by King Richard I (“the Lionheart”) of England, Philip II (“Augustus”) of France, and Emperor Frederick I (“Barbarossa”) of Germany:

  • Barbarossa drowns on way to Crusade (1190)
  • Philip leaves Crusade early to attack Richard’s castles in Normandy
  • Richard takes Acre, makes treaty with Saladin and returns to confront Philip, but is captured and held for ransom in Dürnstein Castle (Austria) by Barbarossa’s son, Henry VI
1201-4 Fourth Crusade, preached by Pope Innocent III and led by lesser princes (including Baldwin, Count of Flanders):

1209-29 Albigensian Crusade, preached by Pope Innocent III against Cathars (rather successful; also extended French royal authority into S. France; > Inquisition)
1212 Crusade against Muslims in Spain, preached by Pope Innocent III (successful); “Children’s Crusade” (hopeless)
1217-21 Fifth Crusade: in Egypt (failure)
1229 Emperor Frederick II purchases possession of Jerusalem (it falls again to Muslims in 1244)
1248, 1270 Two Crusades (to Egypt and Tunis) led by King Louis IX (St. Louis) of France — both failures. King Louis is captured and held to ransom in the first, and dies of illness in the second.
1291 Fall of last Crusader stronghold (Acre)

Online readings:

Annales Herbipolenses, 1147: A hostile view of the 2nd Crusade, by an anonymous annalist of

De expugnatione terrae sanctae per Saladinum: Eyewitness account of the capture of Jerusalem
by Saladin, 1187

Itinerarium peregrinorum et gesta regis Ricardi (Itinerary of the Travels and Deeds of King
Richard): Richard the Lionheart makes peace with Saladin, 1192


12th cent. Rediscovery in the West of codification of Roman law (produced in Constantinople under Emperor Justinian in mid 500s) leads to rapid development of civil (secular) and canon (ecclesiastical) law, and election of canon lawyers to high church office, including the papacy.
1215 Pope Innocent III (a canon lawyer) convenes the 4th Lateran Council, the most important church council held in medieval Europe. It passes a series of canons (church laws), one of which (Canon 21) requires that all Christians shall make confession and take Communion at least once a year, at Easter, on pain of excommunication. This provides a legal basis for the Inquisition, which is established in the 1220s to identify and eliminate all heresies and heretics.

Online readings:

The development of the Inquisition:

Decree of the Council of Toulouse (1229)

Gregory IX sends Domincan friars as Inquisitors to France (1233)

Bernard Gui, Inquisitor’s Manual (c. 1307-23):
the heresies of the Waldensians or Poor Men of Lyon
the Cathars or Albigensians

Bernard Gui, Inquisitor’s Manual (c. 1307-23):

inquisitorial technique
(Notice the very sophisticated legal and interrogation skills displayed here by Bishop Gui in this text.)